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Buyer’s Guide: How to Make Sense of the Disclosures Package?

Feeling Overwhelmed by the Disclosure Package? Let's Simplify It

Not sure how to make sense of the Disclosure Package you just received? You're not alone. In the complex landscape of California real estate, understanding these documents is crucial yet often daunting for many buyers. This guide is here to help you navigate through the disclosures, ensuring that you have a clear and comprehensive understanding of what you're stepping into.

Buyer’s Guide: How to Make Sense of the Disclosures Package?

Why Disclosures are Key in Real Estate Transactions

In California, real estate disclosures are more than just formalities; they are essential elements that safeguard the transparency of property transactions. These documents contain vital information about the property's history, condition, and other factors that could influence its value and livability. They are designed to protect you, the buyer, from unexpected issues and to prevent future disputes for sellers.

The Legal Backbone of California’s Disclosures

The state of California requires sellers to provide extensive information about their property through various forms. This legal framework is one of the most detailed in the United States, ensuring you have a clear picture of your potential investment. From detailing physical defects to highlighting environmental hazards, these disclosures cover a broad spectrum of information.

Below is what a typical Disclosure Package looks like. It is sent electronically.

Buyer’s Guide: How to Make Sense of the Disclosures Package?
This is what you'd typically see on a Disclosure Package

Transfer Disclosure Statement (TDS): A Closer Look

The Transfer Disclosure Statement (TDS) is a pivotal document in your disclosure package. It requires sellers to provide a thorough account of the property’s condition, including any known defects, necessary repairs, alterations made, and other significant facts. For you, the buyer, the TDS is an invaluable tool that aids in understanding the property’s actual state and helps in evaluating its true worth.

Buyer’s Guide: How to Make Sense of the Disclosures Package?
Sample of a TDS

Seller Property Questionnaire (SPQ): A Deeper Dive into Property Details

The Seller Property Questionnaire (SPQ) is a vital document in California real estate transactions. It complements the Transfer Disclosure Statement (TDS) by providing more detailed information about the property. The SPQ requires the seller to disclose specific details such as the functionality of various systems and components in the home, any known material defects, and additional information that might not be covered in the TDS. This includes the history of repairs, insurance claims, and other aspects that could affect the property's condition or value. By providing these insights, the SPQ helps buyers gain a deeper understanding of the property's history and current status.

Buyer’s Guide: How to Make Sense of the Disclosures Package?
Sample of a SPQ

Natural Hazards Disclosure (NHD)

The Natural Hazard Disclosure (NHD) in California is a comprehensive report that identifies various natural risks associated with a property. It typically covers hazards such as flood zones, wildfire risk areas, earthquake fault zones, and seismic hazard zones. The report may also include information on radon gas exposure, airport noise, and military ordnance locations. Compiled by third-party providers like JCP-LGS, the NHD is vital for understanding environmental risks and their potential impact. Importantly, the NHD also includes tax information, crucial for buyers to understand any special assessments or tax liabilities associated with the property.

Buyer’s Guide: How to Make Sense of the Disclosures Package?
Sample of NHD report

Preliminary Title Search

The Preliminary Title Search in California real estate transactions is a critical step in assessing a property's legal status. It reveals essential details about property rights, including any existing easements, covenants, or restrictions that might impact the use of the property. This search also uncovers any liens or legal encumbrances that could complicate the transfer of the title. Understanding easements, in particular, is crucial, as they can dictate access rights or usage limitations. In cases where easements or other legal matters are unclear, a coded map is often provided to delineate these specifics.

Buyer’s Guide: How to Make Sense of the Disclosures Package?
Sample of a color coded map

Physical Inspections (Home, Roof & Pest Inspections): 

Typically, this includes home, Roof and pest inspections. A home inspection evaluates the property's condition, identifying potential health and safety issues. The pest inspection focuses on infestations and related damage, key for assessing repair needs and maintaining the property's integrity. Buyers are advised to actively engage in their own due diligence process, which may include additional specialized inspections, to fully understand the condition of their investment.

Buyer’s Guide: How to Make Sense of the Disclosures Package?
Sample of a roof inspection

Seller’s Responsibility in Providing Disclosures

Sellers are legally obliged to provide accurate and complete information about their property. Failure to do so can lead to serious legal consequences, including lawsuits or rescission of the sale. This underscores the importance of honesty and transparency in the selling process.

The Buyer’s Role: Diligence in Reviewing Disclosures

As a buyer, it’s essential to meticulously review all disclosure documents. This not only helps you understand the property’s condition but also informs you of any potential risks and liabilities. Engaging in professional inspections is also recommended to uncover issues that may not be apparent in the disclosures.


By thoroughly understanding each aspect of the disclosure package, you empower yourself in the real estate process. This knowledge not only prepares you for a well-informed purchase but also ensures a transparent and smooth transaction. With this guide, you’re now better equipped to navigate your journey to finding the perfect property in California.

Please reach out if you have any questions. I'm always here to help!

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